Nanotechnology Biosensors Cluster -
Porter Lab - Publications

Patents

Porter, M. D.; Chau, L. K. "Porous-polymer-film calcium-ion sensor and method of using it" 1991, US Patent 4,992,382.

This sensor and method has a Ca-sensitive reagent, calcichrome, immobilized on a porous polymer film. The reaction of the Ca-sensitive reagent to the Ca(II) is then measured and concn. detd. as a function of the reaction.

Porter, M. D.; Jones, T. P.; Coldiron, S. J. "Dual-wavelength photometer and fiber optic sensor probe", 1994, US Patent 5,307,146.

A dual wavelength optical sensor for measuring chemical properties of a particular quantity, the optical sensor including a sensor probe having a thin sensing film whose optical characteristics are responsive to the chemical properties of the measured quantity.

Porter, M. D.; Deinhammer, R. S.; Shimazu, K. "Ion chromatographic separations using step and linear voltage waveforms with a charge-controllable polymeric stationary phase", 1994, WO Patent 1994/000215.

A method and apparatus for chromatographic separations comprising a conductive-polymer stationary phase for controlled interaction with ionic species. The conductive polymer stationary phase is held at an initial voltage while analyte containing ionic species is added. The ionic species interact with and are held by the stationary phase. Voltage across the stationary phase is varied by linear or step waveforms which alters the stationary phase charge characteristics. Ionic species are selectively released from the stationary phase as its charge characteristics change due to the individual charges of each ionic species. Ionic species released from the stationary phase are flushed from the column by an ionic mobile phase.

Porter, M. D.; Hoffman, D. K.; Zhong, C.-J. "Fluid pumping system based on electrochemically-induced surface tension changes", 1995, US Patent 5,472,577.

A pump for exerting a pumping force on a fluid in an attached conduit, the pump being actuated by a voltage from a power supply, the pump comprising a liquid metal pool, a containment vessel for confining the pool, an inner tubular member in hydraulic contact with the attached conduit and with an open end disposed in the pool to divide a free upper surface of the pool into an actuation surface and a working surface, an electrolyte in contact with the actuation surface, an electrode in contact with the electrolyte, and an electrode in contact with the pool, such that application of a voltage to the electrodes causes a surface tension change in the actuation surface and a resulting height change in the working surface, whereby a pumping action is transferred to the fluid in the attached conduit.

Porter, M. D.; Weisshaar, D. E. "Electrochemical method of controlling thiolate coverage on a conductive substrate such as gold", 1997, US Patent 5,635,047.

A method for forming a partial monomolecular layer of a thiolate having the formula, XRS.sup.-, wherein R is a member selected from the group consisting of linear chain hydrocarbons, branched chain hydrocarbons and aromatics, and X is a member selected from the group consisting of OH, COOH, CH.sub.3, CF.sub.3 (CF.sub.2).sub.7, inorganic complexes with thiol ligands, organometallic compounds, cyclodextrins, and crown ethers, upon a substrate, which comprises determining the constant voltage necessary to be applied to provide a desired extent of coverage of said thiolate upon said substrate, providing an electrochemical system for forming said thiolate partial monomolecular layer upon said substrate and applying said constant voltage for a time sufficient to establish a redox equilibrium, which deposits the thiolate partial monomolecular layer upon said substrate

Henderson, E. R.; Mosher, C. L.; Jones, V. W.; Green, J.-B. D.; Porter, M. D. "Analytical method using modified scanning probes", 1998, US Patent 5,763,768.

The present invention provides a method of analyzing for a specific material in a sample using a sensor including a resonating member having resonating properties. The resonating member has a probe and a known material is disposed on or forms the probe. The method includes the steps of positioning the sensor proximate to the sample, detecting a force dependent change in the resonance properties of the sensor, and confirming the presence of the specific material based on the identity of the known material and the detection of a resonance change.

Porter, M. D.; Weisshaar, D. E. "Electrochemical method of controlling thiolate coverage on a conductive substrate such as gold", 1998, US Patent 5,827,417.
An electrochemical method for forming a partial monomolecular layer of a predetermined extent of coverage of a thiolate of the formula, XRS--, therein R can be a linear or branched chain hydrocarbon or an aromatic or the like and X can be any compatible end group, e.g., OH, COOH, CH.sub.3 or the like, upon a substrate such as gold, which involves applying in an electrochemical system a constant voltage preselected to yield the desired predetermined extent of coverage

Porter, M. D.; Jones, V. W.; Mosher, C. L.; Henderson, E. "Height referencing biochemical cassette", 2000, US Patent 6,146,899.

A height referencing biochemical cassette comprising of a surface suitable to act as a coupling agent, a height referencing indicator, and molecules bonded to the surface. This cassette is a capable of use to test for bonding to these molecules through measuring the height difference between the indicator and the surface. This invention provides an efficient means to quickly and easily test for bonding of molecules to other molecules.

Shinar, R.; Liu, G.; Porter, M. D. "Chemical sensor and coating for same", 2001, US Patent 6,432,362.

A chemical sensor, comprising: a substrate; at least two electrodes connected to the substrate; and a blended coating positioned over the substrate and at least one of the electrodes, the blended coating comprising at least two different materials, wherein the combination of the substrate and the blended coating has a first resonant frequency in the presence of a chemical having a first concentration and a second resonant frequency in the presence of the chemical having a second concentration.

Shinar, R.; Liu, G.; Porter, M. D. “"Chemical sensor and coating for same", 2001, US Patent 6,237,397.

An acoustic wave-based chemical sensor, comprising: a substrate; at least two electrodes connected to the substrate; and a coating positioned over the substrate and at least one of the electrodes, the coating consisting of graphite microparticles.

Vaidya, B.; Porter, M. D.; Shinar, R.; Lipert, R. J. "Chemical sensor with block copolymer coatings", 2003, CA Patent 2,369,720.

Block copolymer or graft copolymer coatings and blends of block copolymers o r graft copolymers with homopolymers and resins are used as a chemical absorption layer on a high performance, mass-sensitive, acoustic wave-based sensing device. The use of block copolymer coating materials containing polymer blocks with high and low glass transition temperatures within the same molecule allows for tailoring of the absorption and physical characteristics of the absorptive layer on a sensor. The coatings form a composition that exhibits the necessary physical properties for use as the absorptive coating in an acoustic wave-sensing device. These materials have favorable acoustic properties over extended temperature ranges, resulting in a wider operating temperature range for acoustic wave-based sensing of volatile organic compounds. Moreover, the improved acoustic properties enable thicker coatings to be used, which increases the detection sensitivity of the sensor.

Porter, M. D.; Granger, J. H. "Redox polymer nanoparticles", 2004, US Patent 7,309,723.

The invention provides nanoparticles comprising one or more redox-active species, methods of making such nanoparticles, and methods for using such nanoparticles, for example, as diagnostic agents for the detection of various analytes.

Porter, M. D.; Ni, J.; Dawson, G. B.; Shinar, R.; Lipert, R. J.; Granger, M. C.; Tondra, M. "Method and apparatus for magnetoresistive monitoring of analytes in flow streams (Detection)", 2004, US Patent 6,736,978.

A method of monitoring analyte flowing in fluid streams comprising the steps of: providing a giant magnetoresistive sensor having at least one sensing element which produces electrical output signals that vary dependent on changes in the magnetic field proximate the sensing element; providing a stream including the analyte, the stream having a magnetic property dependent on the concentration and distribution of analyte therein; flowing the stream past the giant magnetoresistive sensor in sufficiently close proximity to cause the magnetic properties of the stream to produce electrical output signals from the giant magnetoresistive sensor; and monitoring the electrical signals produced by the giant magnetoresistive sensor as an indicator of at least one of an analyte concentration, an analyte distribution, and an analyte magnetic property in the stream flowing past the giant magnetoresistive sensor.

Porter, M. D.; Ni, J.; Lipert, R. J.; Dawson, G. B. "Raman-active reagents and the use thereof", 2005, US Patent Application, 2005089901.

The present invention provides a new class of Raman-active reagents for use in biological and other applications, as well as methods and kits for their use and manufacture. Each reagent includes a Raman-active reporter molecule, a binding molecule, and a surface enhancing particle capable of causing surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The Raman-active reporter molecule and the binding molecule are affixed to the particle to give both a strong SERS signal and to provide biological functionality, i.e. antigen or drug recognition. The Raman-active reagents can function as an alternative to fluorescence-labeled reagents, with advantages in detection including signal stability, sensitivity, and the ability to simultaneously detect several biological materials. The Raman-active reagents also have a wide range of applications, especially in clinical fields (e.g., immunoassays, imaging, and drug screening).

Porter, M. D.; Ni, J.; Dawson, G. B.; Shinar, R.; Lipert, R. J.; Granger, M. C.; Tondra, M. "Method and apparatus for magnetoresistive monitoring of analytes in flow streams (Manipulation)" , 2007, US Patent Application, 11/620,879.

Porter, M. D.; Ni, J.; Dawson, G. B.; Shinar, R.; Lipert, R. J.; Granger, M. C.; Tondra, M. "Method and apparatus for magnetoresistive monitoring of analytes in flow streams (Movement)" , 2007, US Patent, 7,179,383.

A method to move a magnetizable object along a microfluidic channel comprising the step of generating a local magnetic field gradient in conjunction with a uniform magnetic field in the presence of the magnetizable object.

Publications

M. D. Porter and G. B. Skinner, “The Steady-State Approximation in Free-Radical Calculations,” J. Chem. Ed. 1976, 53, 366-7. 

W. A. Feld, C. R. Shore and M. D. Porter, “The Use of the KIM-1 Microcomputer in an Automatic Titration Apparatus,” in Personal Computers in Chemistry, P. Lykos, Ed.; Wiley-Interscience: New York, 1981, Chap. 4.

T. O. Tiernan, M. L. Taylor, J. G. Solch, G. F. VanNess, J. H. Garrett, and M. D. Porter, “Incineration of Chemical Wastes Containing Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Assessment of Tests at Rollins Environmental Services, Dear Park, Texas, and Energy Systems Company, El Dorado, Arkansas,” in Detoxification of Hazardous Wastes, J. H. Exner, Ed.; Ann Arbor Sci.:  Michigan, 1982, Chap. 9.

S. C. Kandelwal, M. D. Porter, and G. B. Skinner, “Infrared Laser Initiated Dissociation of Propane and Ethylene,” Appl.Opt. 1983, 22, 1966-9.

J. Zak, M. D. Porter, and T. Kuwana, “Thin-Layer Electrochemical Cell for Long Optical Path Length Observation of Solution Species,” Anal. Chem. 1983, 55, 2219-22.

M. D. Porter, D. H. Karweik, T. Kuwana, W. M. Theis, G. B. Norris, and T. O. Tiernan, “The Detection Capabilities of Fourier-Transform Infrared External Reflection and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Electrode-Supported Films,” Appl. Spectrosc. 1984, 38, 11-6.

M. D. Porter and T. Kuwana, “Glassy Carbon and Graphite Electrodes with a Hole for Long Path Length Thin-Layer Spectroelectrochemistry,” Anal. Chem. 1984, 56, 529-34.

M. D. Porter, S. Dong, Y. Gui, and T. Kuwana, “Spectroelectrochemical Cell with Adjustable Solution Layer Thickness,” Anal. Chem. 1984, 56, 2263-5.

W. M. Theis, G. B. Norris, and M. D. Porter, “High Resolution Measurements of the OH- Bands in Potassium Titanate Orthophosphate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1985, 46, 1033-5.

Y. Gui, M. D. Porter, and T. Kuwana, “Long Optical Path Length Thin-Layer Spectroelectrochemistry: Quantitation of Adsorbed Aromatic Molecules at Platinum,” Anal. Chem. 1985, 57, 1474-6.

M. D. Porter, D. L. Allara, T. B. Bright, and T. Kuwana, “Characterization of Thin Films on Glassy Carbon Electrodes by Infrared External Reflection Spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the 1985 International Conference of Fourier Transform and Computerized Spectroscopy, J. Grasselli and D. Cameron, Eds.; S.P.I.E. Proceedings Vol. 553; S.P.I.E.: Bellingham, WA, 1986, pp. 490-2.

M. D. Porter and D. L. Allara, “Considerations for the Optimization of Infrared External Reflection Spectroscopy at Liquid/Solid and Gas/Liquid Interfaces,” in Proceedings of the 1985 International Conference on Fourier Transform and Computerized Spectroscopy, J. Grasselli and D. Cameron, Eds., S.P.I.E. Proceedings Vol. 553; S.P.I.E.: Bellingham, WA,  1986, pp. 276-8.

M. D. Porter, T. B. Bright, D. L. Allara, and T. Kuwana, “Quantitative Aspects of Infrared External Reflection Spectroscopy: The Polymer/Glassy Carbon Interface,” Anal. Chem. 1986, 58, 2461-5.

N. E. Schlotter, M. D. Porter, T. B. Bright, and D. L. Allara, “Formation and Structure of a Spontaneously Adsorbed Monolayer of Arachidic Acid on Silver,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 1986, 132, 93-8.

M. D. Porter, T. B. Bright, D. L. Allara, and C. Chidsey, “Spontaneously Organized Molecular Assemblies.   4.  Structural Characterization of n-Alkyl Thiol Monolayers on Gold by Optical Ellipsometry, Infrared Spectroscopy, and Electrochemistry,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1987, 109, 3559-68.

E. B. Troughton, C. D. Bain, G. M. Whitesides, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Allara, and M. D. Porter, “Monolayer Films Prepared by the Spontaneous Self-Assembly of Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Diakyl Sulfides from Solution onto Gold Substrates: Structure, Properties, and Reactivity of Constituent Functional Groups,” Langmuir 1988, 4, 365-85.

P. R. Griffiths, T. Grim, P. Hanst, T. Lauer, F. Mirabella, M. D. Porter, H. Willis, and N. J. Harrick, Optical Spectroscopy: Sampling Techniques Manual, Harrick Scientific: Ossining, New York, 1987.

T. P. Jones and M. D. Porter, “Optical pH Sensor Based on the Chemical Modification of a Porous Polymer Film,” Anal. Chem. 1988, 60, 404-6.

M. D. Porter, “Infrared External Reflection Spectroscopy: A Probe for Chemically Modified Surfaces,” Anal. Chem. 1988, 60, 1143A-55A (invited A-pages feature article).

L. K. Chau, M. Pruski, and M. D. Porter, “Calcichrome:  A Re-Examination of its Structure and Chemical Properties by Solid- and Liquid-State NMR, Infrared Spectroscopy, and Selective Chemical Degradation,” Anal. Chim. Acta 1989, 217, 31-42.

S. M. Stole, T. P. Jones, L. K. Chau, and M. D. Porter, “Construction and Characterization of Optical Sensors with Porous Polymer Film,” in Chemical Sensors and Microinstrumentation, R. Murray, Ed., ACS Symposium Series, ACS, Washington, D. C., No. 403, 1989, pp. 283-302.

S. M. Stole, D. D. Popenoe, and M. D. Porter, “Infrared Spectroelectrochemistry: A Probe of the Molecular Architecture of the Electrochemical Interface,” in Electrochemical Interfaces: Modern Techniques for In Situ Characterization.  H. Abruna, Ed., VCH Publ. NY, 1991, pp. 339-410.

L. K. Chau and M. D. Porter, “Fluorinated Monomolecular Assemblies:  Model Systems to Probe Chemical Interactions at the Polymer-Metal Interface,” in Proceedings from the Symposium on Interfaces Between Polymers, Metals, and Ceramics, B. M. DeKoven, A. Gellman, and R. Rosenberg, Eds.; Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 1989, 153, 267-72.

T. P. Jones and M. D. Porter, “An  Optical Sensor Based on Infrared Spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 1989, 43, 1576-9.

J. C. Hill, C. Stassis, J. Shinar, A. Goldman, R. Folkerts, D.  Schwellenbach, D. Peterson, C. Widrig, M. Porter, C. Benesh, and J. Vary, “Search for Cold Fusion using Pd-D2O Cells and Ti-D Mixtures,”  J. Fusion Energy 1990, 9, 305-8.

M. M. Walczak and M. D. Porter, “Surface and Interfacial Chemistry,” in McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, Sybil P. Parker, Editor-in-Chief, 7th Ed., 1992, Vol. 18, 4-8.

S. M. Stole, C. A. Widrig, C. Chung, and M. D. Porter, “Organic Monomolecular Assemblies:  Characterization with Infrared Reflection Spectroscopy and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy,” 3rd International Symposium of Chemically Modified Surfaces, D. Leyden and W. Collins,  Eds., Gordon and Breach Publ., 1990, 333-43.

L. K. Chau and M. D. Porter, “Composition and Structure of Spontaneously  Adsorbed Monolayers of n-Perfluorocarboxylic Acids on Silver,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 1990, 167, 198-204.

S. M. Stole and M. D. Porter “In Situ Infrared External Reflection Spectroscopy as a Probe of Interactions at the Liquid-Solid Interface of Long Chain Alkanethiol Monolayers at Gold,” Langmuir 1990, 6, 1199-202.

S. M. Stole and M. D. Porter, “An IR-External Reflection Spectroscopy Sample Holder which Facilitates Reproducible Substrate Positioning,” Appl. Spectrosc.  1990, 44, 1418-20.

C. A. Widrig, M. D. Porter, M. D. Ryan, T. G. Strein, and A. G. Ewing, “Fundamental Reviews in Analytical Chemistry:  Dynamic Electrochemistry,” Anal. Chem. 1990, 62, 1R-20R (invited).

L. K. Chau and M. D. Porter, “Optical Sensor for Calcium:  Performance, Structure, and Reactivity of Calcichrome Immobilized at an Anionic Polymer Film,”  Anal. Chem. 1990, 62, 1964-71.

M. M. Walczak, C. Chung, S. M. Stole, C. A. Widrig, and M. D. Porter, “Structure and Interfacial Properties of Spontaneously Adsorbed n‑Alkanethiolate  Monolayers on Evaporated Silver Surfaces,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1991, 113, 2370-7.

C. A. Widrig, C. A. Alves, and M. D. Porter, “Scanning Tunneling Microscopy of Ethanethiolate and n-Octadecanethiolate Monolayers Spontaneously Adsorbed at Gold Surfaces,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1991, 113, 2805-10.

C. A. Widrig, C. Chung, and M. D. Porter, “Electrochemical Desorption of n-Alkanethiol Monolayers from Polycrystalline Au and Ag Electrodes,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 1991, 310, 335-59.

L. K. Chau and M. D. Porter, “Surface Isoelectric Point of Evaporated Silver Films:  Determination by Contact Angle Titration,” J. Colloid Interfacial Sci. 1991, 145, 283-6.

T. P. Jones, S. J. Coldiron, W. J. Deninger, and M. D. Porter, “A Field Deployable Dual-Wavelength Fiber-Optic pH Sensor Instrument Based on Solid-State Optical and Electrical Components,” Appl. Spectrosc. 1991, 45, 1271-7.

R. S. Deinhammer, K. Shimazu, and M. D. Porter, “Ion Chromatographic Separations Using Step and Linear Voltage Waveforms at a Charge-Controllable Polymeric Stationary Phase,” Anal. Chem. 1991, 63, 1889-94.

M. M. Walczak, D. D. Popenoe, R. S. Deinhammer, B. D. Lamp, C. Chung, and M. D. Porter, “Reductive Desorption of Alkanethiolate Monolayers at Gold:  A Measure of Surface Coverage,” Langmuir 1991, 7, 2687-93.

D. D. Popenoe, S. M. Stole, and M. D. Porter, “Optical Considerations for Infrared Reflection Spectroscopic Analysis in the C-H Stretching Region of Monolayer Films at an Aqueous Metal Interface,” Appl. Spectrosc. 1992, 46, 79-87.

C. A. Alves, E. L. Smith, and M. D. Porter, “Atomic Scale Imaging of Alkanethiolate Monolayers at Gold Surfaces with Atomic Force Microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1992, 114, 1222-7.

R. P. O'Toole, S. Burns, G. J. Bastiaans, and M. D. Porter, “Thin Aluminum Nitride Film Resonators:  Miniaturized High Sensitivity Mass Sensors,” Anal. Chem. 1992, 64, 1289-94.

D. E. Weisshaar, B. D. Lamp, and M. D. Porter, “Thermodynamically Controlled Electrochemical Formation of Thiolate Monolayers at Gold:  Characterization and Comparison to Self-Assembled Analogs,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.  (Comm. Ed.), 1992, 114, 5860-2.

M. D. Porter, R. P. O'Toole, S. J. Coldiron, W. D. Deninger, R. S. Deinhammer, S. G. Burns, G. J. Bastiaans, S. D. Braymen, and H. R. Shanks, “Novel Approaches to the Construction of Miniaturized Analytical Instrumentation,” Journal of Aerospace: SAE Transactions 1992101, 564-72.

D. D. Popenoe, R. S. Deinhammer, and M. D. Porter, “Infrared Spectroelectrochemical Characterization of Ferrocene-Terminated Alkanethiolate Monolayers at Gold,” Langmuir 1992, 8, 2521-30.

C. A. Alves, E. L. Smith, C. A. Widrig, and M. D. Porter, “Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy on n-Alkanethiolate Monolayers Spontaneously Adsorbed at Gold Surfaces” Proceedings from Applied Spectroscopy in Materials Science II, W. Golden, Ed.; SPIE, 1992, 1636, 125-8.

E. L. Smith, C. A. Alves, J. W. Anderegg, M. D. Porter, and L. M. Siperko, “Deposition of Metal Overlayers at End-Group-Derivatized Thiolate Monolayers Adsorbed at Au.  I. Surface and Interfacial Chemical Characterization of Deposited Cu at Carboxylic Acid-Terminated Structures,” Langmuir 1992, 8, 2707-14.

C.-F. Lin, K. R. Hebert and M. D. Porter, “Surface Films Produced by Cathodic Polarization of Aluminum,” Proceedings of the Electrochemical Society, Fall 1992, Electrochemical Society Press, 240-52.

D. E. Weisshaar, M. M. Walczak, and M. D. Porter, “Electrochemically Induced Transformations of Monolayers Formed by Self-Assembly of Mercaptoethanol at Gold,” Langmuir 1993, 9, 323-9.

A. J. Bard (Chair), H. Abruna, C. Chidsey, L. Faulkner, S. Feldberg, K. Itaya, M. Majda, O. Melroy, M. Porter, M. Soriaga, and H. White, “Structure and Dynamics at the Electrode/Electrolyte Interface,” J. Phys. Chem. (Feature Article) 1993, 97, 7147-73.

E. L. Smith and M. D. Porter, “Structure of Monolayers of Short Chain n-Alkanoic Acids (CH3(CH2)nCOOH, n=1-9) Spontaneously Adsorbed from the Gas Phase at Silver as Probed by Infrared Reflection Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 1993, 97, 8032-8.

C.-F. Lin, K. R. Hebert, and M. D. Porter, “Surface Films Produced by Cathodic Polarization of Aluminum,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 1994, 141, 96-104.

C. A. Alves and M. D. Porter, “Atomic Force Microscopic Characterizations of a Fluorinated Alkanethiolate Monolayer at Gold and Correlations to Electrochemical and Infrared Reflection Spectroscopic Structural Descriptions,” Langmuir 1993, 9, 3507-12.

J. Zak. H. Yuan, M. K. Ho, L. K. Woo, and M. D. Porter, “Thiol-Derivatized Metalloporphyrins:  Monomolecular Films for Electrocatalytic Reduction of Dioxygen at Gold Electrodes,” Langmuir 1993, 9, 2772-4.

R. S. Deinhammer, E.-Y. Ting, and M. D. Porter, “Electrochemically Modulated Liquid Chromatography (EMLC): A New Approach to Gradient Elution Separations,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 1993, 362, 295-9.

S. J. Coldiron, B. Vaidya, and M. D. Porter, “The Role of Chemically Modified Surfaces in the Construction of Miniaturized Analytical Instrumentation,” Journal of Aerospace:  SAE Transactions 1994, 101, 564-72.

R. S. Deinhammer, M. K. Ho, J. W. Anderegg, and M. D. Porter, “Electrochemical Oxidation of Amine-Containing Compounds:  A Route to the Surface Modification of Glassy Carbon Electrodes,” Langmuir 1994, 10, 1306-13.

M. D. Porter and M. M. Walczak, “Self-Assembled Monolayers:  Models of Organic Interfaces” in Handbook of Surface Imaging and Visualization, A. T. Hubbard, Ed.; CRC Press, 1995, p. 733-40.

R. S. Deinhammer, M. D. Porter, and K. Shimazu, “Retention Characteristics of Polypyrrole as a Stationary Phase for Electrochemically-Modulated Liquid Chromatographic Separations of Dansyl Amino Acids,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 1995, 387, 35-46.

R. S. Deinhammer, E.-Y. Ting, and M. D. Porter, “Dynamic Modification of Separations using Electrochemically-Modified Liquid Chromatography (EMLC),” Anal. Chem. (Accelerated Article) 1995, 67, 237-46.

C. J. Zhong and M. D. Porter, “Evidence for Carbon-Sulfur Bond Cleavage in Spontaneously Adsorbed Organosulfide-Based Monolayers at Gold,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. (Comm. Ed.), 1994, 116, 11616-7.

J.-B. Green, M. T. McDermott, M. D. Porter, and L. Siperko, “Nanometer Scale Mapping of Chemically Distinct Domains at Well-Defined Organic Interfaces using Frictional Force Microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 1995, 99, 10960-5.

C. A. McDermott, J.-B. D. Green, M. T. McDermott, and M. D. Porter, “STM and AFM Imaging of Alkanethiolate Monolayers at Gold Surfaces,” in Procedures in Scanning Probe Microscopies,” R. J. Colton, A. Engel. J. E. Frommer, H. E. Gaub, A. A. Gewirth, R. Guckenberger, J. Rabe, W. M. Heckl, and B. Parkinson, Eds.; Wiley, NY 1998, 303-19, (invited).

M. M. Walczak, B. D. Lamp, C. A. Alves, and M. D. Porter, “Electrochemical and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Evidence for Differences in the Binding Sites of Alkanethiolate Monolayers Chemisorbed at Gold,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 1995, 396, 103-14.

C. A. McDermott, M. T. McDermott, J.-B. Green and M. D. Porter, “Structure Origins of the Surface Depressions at Alkanethiolate Monolayers on Au(111):  A Scanning Tunneling and Atomic Force Microscopic Investigation,” J. Phys. Chem. 1995, 99, 13257-67.

B. Vaidya, J. Zak, G. J. Bastiaans, M. D. Porter, J. L. Hallman, N. A. R. Nabulsi, M. D. Utterbach, B. Strzelbicka, and R. A. Bartsch, “Chromogenic and Fluorogenic Crown Ether Compounds for the Selective Extraction and Determination of Hg(II),” Anal. Chem. 1995, 67, 4101-11.

C. J. Zhong and M. D. Porter, “Designing Interfaces at the Molecular Level” Anal. Chem. (invited A-pages feature article), Anal. Chem. 1995, 67, 709A-17A.

G. Liu, M. D. Porter, G. J. Bastiaans, and S. Burns, “A Smart H2 Sensor Array of QCMs Coated with PdNi Alloy of Various Thicknesses,” Proceedings of the 1995 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium, San Francisco, CA, June 1995.

J. Xia, S. Burns, M. Porter, T. Xue, G. Liu, R. Wyse, and C, Thielen, “A Micromachined Sensor Array using Thin Film Resonators,” Proceedings of the 1995 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium, San Francisco, CA, June 1995.

J.-B. Green, M. T. McDermott, and M. Porter, “Real-Time Monitoring of the Electrochemical Transformation of a Ferrocene-Terminated Alkanethiolate Monolayer at Gold via an Adhesion-Based Atomic Force Microscopic Characterization,” J. Phys. Chem. 1996, 100, 13342-5.

C. J. Zhong and M. D. Porter, “Fine Structure in the Voltammetric Desorption Curves of Alkanethiolate Monolayers Chemisorbed at Gold,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 1997, 425, 147-153. 

B. D. Lamp, D. Hobara, M. D. Porter, K. Niki, T. M. Cotton, “Correlation of the Structural Decomposition and Performance of Pyridinethiolate Surface Modifiers at Gold Electrodes for the Facilitation of Cytochrome c Heterogeneous Electron-Transfer Reactions,” Langmuir 1997, 13, 736-41.

E.-Y. Ting, M. D. Porter, “Separations of Corticosteroids Using Electrochemically Modulated Liquid Chromatography:  Selectivity Enhancements at a Porous Graphitic Carbon Stationary Phase,” Anal. Chem. 1997, 69, 675-8.

C.-J. Zhong, J. Zak, M. D. Porter, “Voltammetric Reductive Desorption Characteristics of Alkanethiolate Monolayers at Single Crystal Au (111) and (110) Electrode Surfaces,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 1997, 421, 9-13.

R. J. Lipert, B. D. Lamp, and M. D. Porter, “Specular Reflection Spectroscopy,” in Modern Techniques in Applied Molecular Spectroscopy, Francis M. Mirabella, Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., NY, 1998, 83-126.

J.-B. Green, C. A. McDermott, M. T. McDermott, and M. D. Porter, “Scanning Probe Microscopy of Organic Thin Films at Electrode Surfaces,” in Imaging of Surfaces and Interfaces in Frontiers in Electrochemistry, (Vol. 4) J. Lipkowski and P. M. Ross, Eds., 1999, 249-303.

M. T. McDermott, J.-B. Green, and M. D. Porter, “Scanning Force Microscopic Exploration of the Lubrication Capabilities of n-Alkanethiolate Monolayers Chemisorbed at Gold:  Structural Basis of Microscopic Friction and Wear,” Langmuir 1997, 13, 2504-10.

B. Vaidya, M. D. Porter, M. D. Utterback, R. A. Bartsch, “Selective Determination of Cadmium in Water Using a Chromogenic Crown Ether in a Mixed Micellar Solution,” Anal. Chem. 1997, 69, 2688-93.

N. J. Simmons  and M. D. Porter, “Long Optical Path Length Cell for Thin-layer Spectroelectrochemistry,” Anal. Chem. 1997, 69, 2866-9.

M. D. Porter, C.-J. Zhong, J. Ni, S. J. Coldiron, W. C. Tang, “Electrochemically-Driven Micropump for Fluid Flow and Delivery:  Toward a Novel Micropump Design for Miniaturized Liquid Chromatographic and Flow Injection Analyses,” 27th International Conference on Environmental Systems, SAE Technical Paper Series, No. 972420, 1997.

E.-Y. Ting. and M. D. Porter, “Separations of Benzodiazepines Using Electrochemically-Modulated Liquid Chromatography (EMLC):  Efficient Separations from Changes in the Voltage Applied to a Porous Graphitic Carbon Stationary Phase,” J. Chromatogr. A 1998, 793, 204-8.

J. Wang, J. Kenseth, V. Jones, J. B. Green, and M. McDermott, “SFM Tip-Assisted Hydrolysis of a Dithiobis(succinimido undecanoate) Monolayer Chemisorbed on a Au(111) Surface,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1997, 119, 12796-9.

M. J. Hostetler, J. E. Wingate, C.-J. Zhong, J. E. Harris, R. W. Vachet, M. R. Clark, J. D. Londono, S. J. Green, J. J. Stokes, G. D. Wignall, G. L. Glish, M. D. Porter, N. D. Evans, and R. W. Murray, “Alkanethiolate Gold Cluster Molecules with Core Radii from 7 to 26 Angstroms:  Borders between Molecular and Metallic Behavior and Between Two- and Three-Dimensional Monolayers,” Langmuir 1998, 14, 17-30.

B. Vaidya, S. W. Watson, S. J. Coldiron, and M. D. Porter, “Reduction of Chloride Ion Interference in Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) Determinations Using Bismuth-Based Adsorbents,” Anal. Chim. Acta 1997, 357, 167-75.

E.-Y. Ting and M. D. Porter, “Column Design for Electrochemically Modulated Liquid Chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 1998, 70, 94-9.

E.-Y. Ting and M. D. Porter, “Electrochemically Modulated Liquid Chromatography (EMLC) as a Probe of the Adsorption Characteristics of Monsubstituted Benzenes at Porous Graphitic Carbon,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 1998, 443, 180-5.

V. W. Jones, J. R. Kenseth, C. L. Mosher, E. Henderson, and M. D. Porter, “Microminiaturized Immunoassays Using Atomic Force Microscopy and Compositionally Patterned Antigen Arrays,  Anal. Chem. (accelerated article) 1998, 70, 1233-41.

M. J. Hostetler, C. J. Zhong, B. K. H. Yen, J. Anderegg, S. M. Gross, N. D. Evans, M. D. Porter and R. W. Murray, “Stable, Monolayer-Protected Metal Alloy Clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. (Comm. Ed.) 1998, 120, 9396-7.

M. Ho, S. Wang, and M. D. Porter, “Electrosorption-Based Modification of Porous Graphitic Carbon:  Using Electrochemically Modulated Liquid Chromatography (EMLC) to Create a Chiral Stationary Phase for Enantiomeric Separations,” Anal. Chem. 1998, 70, 4314-9.

S. Wang and M. D. Porter, “Enantiomeric Separations of Benzodiazepines by Electrochemically Modulated Liquid Chromatography,” in Proceedings from the 22nd International Symposium on High Performance Liquid Phase Separations and Related Techniques, St. Louis, MO, J. Chromatogr. A 1998, 828, 157-66.

J. D. Burgess, V. W. Jones, M. D. Porter, M. C. Rhoten and F. M. Hawkridge, “Scanning Force Microscopy Images of Cytochrome c Oxidase Immobilized in an Electrode-Supported Lipid Bilayer Membrane, Langmuir (Letter) 1998, 14, 6628-31.

S.-S. Wong, H. Takano, and M. D. Porter, “Mapping Orientational Differences of Terminal Functional Groups by Friction Force Microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 1998, 70, 5209-12.

C.-J. Zhong, R. C. Brush, J. Anderegg, and M. D. Porter, “Organosulfur Monolayers at Gold Surfaces:  Re-examination of the Case for Sulfide Adsorption and Implications to the Formation of Monolayers from Thiols and Disulfides,” Langmuir 1999, 15, 518-25.

M. D. Porter and H. Takano, “Electrochemically Modulated Liquid Chromatography,” Encyclopedia of Separation Sciences, I. D. Wilson, E. R. Adlard, M. Cooke, and C. F. Poole, Eds.; Academic Press:  London, 2000, p. 636-45.

C. J. Zhong, N. Woods, G. Brent Dawson, and M. D. Porter, “Formation of Thiol-Based Monolayers on Gold: Implications from Open Circuit Potential Measurements,” Electrochem. Comm. 1999, 1, 17-21.

M. S. Abdel-Latif and M. D. Porter, “Effects of Electrolytes on Manipulation of the Stationary-Phase in Electrochemically Modulated Liquid Chromatography,” Anal. Lett. 1998, 31, 1743-56.

M. S. Abdel-Latif and M. D. Porter, “Effect of Electrolytes on the Retention Behavior of Some Benzenesulfonates in Electrochemically Modulated Liquid Chromatography,” Talanta 1998, 47, 681-7.

M. S. Abdel-Latif and M. D. Porter, “Potentiostatic and Galvanostatic Modulation of Liquid Chromatography,” J. Liq. Chrom. & Rel. Technol. 1998, 21, 2281-96.

A. Gannepalli, M. D. Porter, and S. K. Mallapragada, “Nanoscale Patterning of Polymer Surfaces Using Force Microscopy,” Polym. Mater. Sci. Eng. 1998, 78, 3-4.

H. Takano and M. D. Porter, “Electrochemically Modulated Liquid Chromatography (EMLC) Manipulation of the Retention of Organic Cations,” Proceedings from the Symposium on “New Directions in Electroanalytical Chemistry,” J. Leddy, P. Vanysek, and M. D. Porter, Eds., Electrochemical Society Press, (Proceedings-99-5), 1999, 50-60.

H. Takano, J. R. Kenseth, S. Wong, J. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Porter, “Chemical and Biochemical Analysis Using Scanning Force Microscopy (SFM),” Chem. Rev. 1999, 99, 2845-90.

J. C. O’Brien, V. W. Jones, M. D. Porter, C. L. Mosher, and E. Henderson, “Immunosensing Platforms Using Spontaneously Adsorbed Antibody Fragments on Gold,” Anal. Chem. 2000, 72, 703-10.

J. Ni, R. J. Lipert, G. B. Dawson, and M. D. Porter, “Immunoassay Readout Method Using Extrinsic Raman Labels Adsorbed on Immunogold Colloids,” Anal. Chem. 1999, 71, 4903-8.

N. J. Simmons, K. O. A. Chin, J. A. Harnisch, B. Vaidya, W. S. Trahanovsky, M. D. Porter, and R. J. Angelici, “Synthesis and Characterization of a Catechol-Terminated Alkenthiolate Monolayer Adsorbed on Gold,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 2000, 482, 178-87.

S. Duhachek, J. Kenseth, G. P. Casale, G. J. Small, M. D. Porter, and R. Jankowiak, “Monoclonal Antibody--Gold Biosensor Chips for Detection of Depurinating Carcinogen-DNA Adducts by Fluorescence Line-Narrowing Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 2000, 72, 3709-16. 

S.-S. Wong and M. D. Porter, “Origin of the Multiple Voltammetric Desorption Waves of Long Chain Alkanethiolate Monolayers Chemisorbed on Annealed Gold Electrodes,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 2000, 485, 135-143.

M. Tondra, M. D. Porter, and R. Lipert, “Model for Detection of Immobilized Superparamagnetic Nanosphere Assay Labels using Giant Magnetoresistive Sensors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2000, 18, 1125-9.

H. Deng, G. J. Van Berkel, H. Takano, D. Gazda, and M. D. Porter, “Electrochemically Modulated Liquid Chromatography Coupled On-Line with Electrospray Mass Spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 2000, 70, 2641-7.

J. C. O'Brien, J. T. Stickney, and M. D. Porter, “Self Assembled Double-Stranded DNA (dsDNA) Microarrays for Protein:dsDNA Screening Using Atomic Force Microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. (Comm. Ed.) 2000, 122, 5004-5.

H. Takano, S.-S. Wong, J. Harnisch, and M. D. Porter, “Chemically Sensitive Scanning Force Microscopy,” Proceedings of the 1999 Joint International Meeting of the Electrochemical Society and the Electrochemical Society of Japan, 2000, 99-25, p. 46-54

J. Kenseth, S.-S. Wong, H. Takano, V. Jones, and M. Porter, “Formation, Structural Characterization, and Reactivity of Organosulfur Monolayers on Gold,” Fourier Transform Spectroscopy 12th International Conference, Structures and Dynamics in Organic and Polymeric Systems Symposium, Tokyo, Japan, August 1999, K. Itoh and M. Tasumi, Eds., Waseda University Press, 179-82.

Y.-S. Shon, S. M. Gross, G. B. Dawson, M. D. Porter, and R. W. Murray, “Alkanethiolate Protected Gold Clusters Generated from Sodium S-Dodecylthiolsulfate (Bunte Salts),” Langmuir 2000, 16, p. 6555-61.

H. Takano, S.-S. Wong, J. A. Harnisch, and M. D. Porter, “Mapping the Subsurface Composition of Organic Films by Electric Force Microscopy,” Langmuir 2000, 16, 5231-3.

H. Takano, M. D. Porter, and P. G. Haydon, “Imaging the Spatial Organization of Calcium Channels in Nerve Terminals Using Atomic Force Microscopy,” in Ion Channel Locationlization:  Methods and Protocols, A. N. Lopatin and C. G. Nichols, Eds.; Humana Press:  Totowa, NJ, 2001, 391-405.

T. Kawaguchi, H. Yasuda, K. Shimazu, and M. D. Porter, “Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Investigation of the Reductive Desorption of Self-Assembled Monolayers of Alkanethiols and Mercaptoalkanoic Acids on Au,” Langmuir 2000, 16, 9830-40.

J. C. O'Brien, J. T. Stickney, and M. D. Porter, “Preparation and Characterization of Self-Assembled Double-Stranded DNA (dsDNA) Microarrays for Protein:dsDNA Screening Using Atomic Force Microscopy,” Langmuir 2000, 16, 9559-67.

J. Ni, C. J. Zhong, S. J. Coldiron, and M. D. Porter, “Electrochemically-Actuated Mercury Pump for Fluid Flow and Delivery,” Anal. Chem. 2001, 73, 103-10.

J. Ni, S. J. Coldiron, C.-J. Zhong, and M. D. Porter, “Electrochemically-Actuated Mercury Valve for Flow Rate and Direction Control:  Design, Characterization, and Applications,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 2001, 504, 166-74.

R. Shinar, G. Liu, M. D. Porter, “Graphitic Microparticles as Coatings for Quartz Crystal Microbalance-based Gas Sensors,” Anal. Chem. 2000, 72, 5981-7.

R. Polikar, R. Shinar, V. Honavar, L. Udpa, and M. D. Porter, “Detection and Identification of Odorants Using an Electronic Nose,” Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 2001, 5, 3137-40.

J. R. Kenseth, J. A. Harnisch, V. W. Jones, and M. D. Porter, “Investigation of Approaches for the Fabrication of Protein Patterns by Scanning Probe Lithography” Langmuir 2001, 17, 4105-12.

J. A. Harnisch, A. D. Pris, and M. D. Porter, “Attachment of Gold Nanoparticles to Glassy Carbon Electrodes via a Mercaptobenzene Film,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. (Comm. Ed.) 2001, 123, 5829-30.

R. Polikar, R. Shinar, L. Udpa, and M. D. Porter, “Artificial Intelligence Methods for Selection of an Optimized Sensor Array for Identification of Volatile Organic Compounds,” Sensors and Actuators B 2001, 80, 240-52.

J. A. Harnisch, D. B. Gazda, J. W. Anderegg, and M. D. Porter, “Chemical Modification of Carbonaceous Stationary Phases by the Reduction of Diazonium Salts,” Anal. Chem. 2001, 73, 3954-9.

B. Vaidya, J. Chen, M. D. Porter, and R. J. Angelici, “Effects of Packing and Orientation on the Hydrolysis of Ester Monolayers on Gold,” Langmuir 2001, 17, 6569-76.

H. Takano and M. D. Porter, “Monitoring Chemical Transformations at Buried Organic Interfaces by Electric Force Microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. (Comm. Ed.), 2001, 123, 8412-3.

M. D. Porter and J. A. Harnisch, “Electrochemically Modulated Liquid Chromatography:  An Electrochemical Strategy for Manipulating Chromatographic Retention,” The Analyst 2001, 126, 1841-9 (cover feature).

D. E. Weisshaar and M. D. Porter, “Site-Specific Voltage Control of Adsorption on Glassy  Carbon Electrodes,” Electrochem. Comm. 2001, 3, 758-61.

M. Arena, M. D. Porter, and J. S. Fritz, “Rapid Specific Determination of Iodine and Iodide by Combined Solid-Phase Extraction/Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 2002, 74,185-90.

M. Tondra, M. Granger, R. Fuerst, M. Porter, C. Nordman, J. Taylor, and S. Akou, “Design of Integrated Microfluidic Device for Sorting Magnetic Beads in Biological Assays,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 2001, 37, 2621-3.

Y.-S. Shon, G. B. Dawson, M. D. Porter, and R. W. Murray, “Monolayer-Protected Bimetal Cluster Synthesis by Core Metal Galvanic Exchange Reaction,” Langmuir 2002, 18, 3880-5.

H. Takano, J.-Y. Sul, M. L. Mazzanti, R. T. Doyle, M. D. Porter, and P. G. Haydon, “Micropatterned Substrates: An Approach to Detecting Extracellular Pathways in Intercellular Signaling.,” Anal. Chem. 2002, 74, 4640-6.

M. P. Arena, M. D. Porter, and J. S. Fritz, “Rapid, Low Level Determination of Silver(I) by Colorimetric-Solid Phase Extraction,” Anal. Chim. Acta 2003, 482, 197-207.

A. D. Pris and M. D. Porter, “Creation of Submicrometer Structures using Polymeric Nanoparticle Layers on Photolithography,” Nano Lett. 2002, 2, 1087-91.

R. J. Lipert, R. Shinar, B. Vaidya, A. D. Pris, M. D. Porter, G. Liu, T. D. Grabau, and J. P. Dilger, “Thin Films of Block Copolymer Blends for Enhanced Performance of Acoustic Wave-Based Chemical Sensors,” Anal. Chem. 2002, 74, 6383-91.

Y. Melikhov, S. J. Lee, D. C. Jiles, D. H. Schmidt, M. D. Porter, and R. Shinar, “Microelectromagnectic Ferrofluid-Based Actuator,” J. Appl. Phys. 2003, 93, 8438-40.

W. He, S. J. Lee, D. C. Jiles, D. H. Schmidt, M. D. Porter, and R. Shinar, “Design of High-Magnetic Field Gradient Sources for Controlling Magnetically Induced Flow of Ferrofluids in Microfluidic Systems,” J. Appl. Phys. 2003, 93, 7459-61.

J. S. Fritz, M. P. Arena, S. A. Steiner and M. D. Porter, “Rapid Determination of Ions by Combined Solid-Phase Extraction/Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy,” J. Chromatogr. A 2003, 997, 41-50.

D. S. Grubisha, R. J. Lipert, H.Y. Park, J. Driskell, and M. D. Porter, “Femtomolar Detection of Prostate Specific Antigen:  an Immunoassay Based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering and Immunogold Labels,” Anal. Chem. 2003, 75, 5936-43.

D. B. Gazda, R. J. Lipert, J. S. Fritz, M.D. Porter, J. Rutz, P. Mudgett, and J. Schultz, "Rapid Determination of Biocide Concentrations Using Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE): Results from Microgravity Testing," Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference on Environmental Systems, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, SAE Technical Paper #2003-01-2406, 2003.

L. M. Ponton, D. B. Gazda, R. J. Lipert, J. S. Fritz, M. D. Porter, J. Rutz, P. Mudgett, D. Dungan, and J. Schultz, "Archiving Trace Organic Contaminants in Spacecraft Water," Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference on Environmental Systems, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, SAE Technical Paper #2003-01-2408, 2003.

N. M. Grubor, R. Shinar, R. Jankowiak, M. D. Porter, and G. J. Small, “Novel Biosensor Chip for Simultaneous Detection of DNA-Carcinogen Adducts with Low-temperature Fluorescence,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics 2004, 19, 547-56.

A. D. Pris and M. D. Porter, “Nanoparticle Bar-Codes:  Size-Based Assays using Atomic Force Microscopy,” Langmuir 2004, 20, 6969-73.

D. B. Gazda, J. S. Fritz, and M. D. Porter, “Determination of Nickel(II) as the Nickel Dimethylglyoxime Complex Using Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction,” Anal. Chim. Acta 2004, 508, 53-9.

D. B. Gazda, R. J. Lipert, J. S. Fritz, and M. D. Porter, “Investigation of the Iodine-PVP Interaction Employed in the Determination of Biocidal Iodine by Colorimetric Solid-Phase Extraction,” Anal. Chim. Acta 2004, 510, 241-7.

D. B. Gazda, J. S. Fritz, and M. D. Porter, “Multiplexed Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (MC-SPE):  Determination of Silver(I), Nickel(II), and Sample pH,” Anal. Chem. 2004, 76, 4881-7.

N. C. Dias, D. B. Gazda, J. S. Fritz, M. D. Porter, J. Rutz, P. Mudgett, and J. Schultz, “Application of Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE) to Monitoring Nickel(II) and Lead(II) in Spacecraft Water Supplies,” Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Environmental Systems, SAE Technical Paper #2004-01-2539, 2004.

L. M. Ponton and M. D. Porter, “High Speed Electrochemically Modulated Liquid Chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 2004, 76, 5823-8.

N. Pekas, M. D. Porter, M. Tondra, A. Popple, and A. Jander, "Giant Magnetoresistance Monitoring of Magnetic Picodroplets in an Integrated Microfluidic System," J. Appl. Phys. 2004, 85, 4783-5.

N. Pekas, M. Granger, M. Tondra, A. Popple, and M. D. Porter, "Magnetic Particle Diverter in an Integrated Microfluidic Format," J. Mag. and Mag. Mat. 2005, 293, 584-8.

M. Tondra, A. Popple, A. Jander, R. Millen, N. Pekas and M. D. Porter, "Microfabricated tools for manipulation and analysis of magnetic microcarriers," J. Mag. and Mag. Mat. 2005, 293, 725-30.

L. M. Ponton and M. D. Porter, " Electrochemically Modulated Liquid Chromatographic Separations of Inorganic Anions," J. Chromatogr. A 2004, 11059, 103-9.

T. Hasan, D. B. Gazda, M. D. Porter, and R. S. Houk, “On-line Cleanup of Blanks by Electrochemically Modulated Liquid Chromatography for Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry,” Anal. Chim. Acta 2005, 537, 63-8.

H.-Y. Park, R. J. Lipert, and M. D. Porter, “Single Particle Raman Measurements of Gold Nanoparticles Used in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS)-Based Sandwich Immunoassays,” in Nanosensing: Materials and Devices; M. Islam and A. Dutta (Eds.), Proc. SPIE 2004, 5593, 464-77.

H.-W. Li, H.-Y. Park, M. D. Porter, and E. S. Yeung, “Single DNA Molecules as Probes of Chromatographic Surfaces,” Anal. Chem. 2005, 77, 3256-60.

G. A. Edwards, J. D. Driskell, A. J. Bergren, R. J. Lipert, and M. D. Porter, “High Resolution Mapping of Compositional Differences at Electrode Interfaces by Electric Force Microscopy,” Technical Proceedings of the 2005 Nanotechnology Conference, Volume 22005, 722-5.

J. D. Driskell, K. M. Kwarta, R. J. Lipert, M. D. Porter, J. Neill, and J. Ridpath, “Low Level Detection of Viral Pathogens by a Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Based Immunoassay," Anal. Chem. 2005, 19, 6147-54.

N. C. Dias, M. D. Porter, and J. S. Fritz, “Principles and Applications of Colorimetric Solid-Phase Extraction with Negligible Depletion,” Anal. Chim.Acta, 2005, 569, 83-90.

D. W. Keller, L. M. Ponton, and M. D. Porter, “Assessment of Supporting Electrolyte Contributions in Electrochemically Modulated Liquid Chromatography,” J. Chromatogr. A 2005, 1089, 72-81.

N. C. Dias, J. S. Fritz, and M. D. Porter, “Trace Level Determination of Lead(II) in Water by Colorimetric-Solid Phase Extraction,” Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Rome, Italy, SAE Technical Paper #2005-01-2889, 2005.

N. C. Dias, J. S. Fritz, and M. D. Porter, “Applications of Colorimetric Solid-Phase Extraction with Negligible Depletion,” Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Rome, Italy, SAE Technical Paper #2005-01-3065, 2005.

A. A. Hazen-Bosveld, R. J. Lipert, J. S. Fritz, and M. D. Porter, “Development of New Detection Schemes Using Colorimetric-Solid Phase Extraction for Formaldehyde and other Trace Organic Contaminants in Water,” Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Rome, Italy, SAE Technical Paper #2005-01-3063, 2005.

R. J. Lipert, A. A. Hazen-Bosveld, and M. D. Porter, “Spectrophotometric Color Matching:  A Straightforward Alternative to Kubelka-Monk Analysis of Reflectance data for Readout of Water Quality Monitoring Disks,” Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Rome, Italy, SAE Technical Paper, 2005.

J. Nordling, R. J. Lipert, M. D. Porter, and D. B. Gazda, “Development of Streamlined Methods for Integration into Multiplexed Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (MC-SPE) Analysis of Spacecraft Water,” Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Rome, Italy, SAE Technical Paper #2005-01-2891, 2005.

C.-J. Shih, Neil C. Dias, and M. D. Porter, “Detection of Cadmium(II) in Water Using Colorimetric-Solid Phase Extraction,” Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Rome, Italy, SAE Technical Paper #2005-01-2890, 2005.

H.-G. Hong and M. D. Porter, “Signal Enhancement for Electrochemical Detection at Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Phenyl Layer,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 2005, 578, 133-9.

R. L. Millen, T. Kawaguchi, M. C. Granger, M. D. Porter, and M. Tondra, "Giant Magnetoresistive Sensors and Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles: A Chip-Scale Detection Strategy for Immunosorbent Assays," Anal. Chem. 2005, 77, 6581-7.

D. W. Keller and M. D. Porter, “Electrochemically Modulated Liquid Chromatography and the Gibbs Adsorption Equation,” Anal. Chem. 2005, 77, 7399-407.

A. J. Bergren and M. D. Porter “Electrochemical Amplification using Selective Self-Assembled Alkanethiolate Monolayers on Gold:  A Predictive Mechanistic Model,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 2005, 585, 172-80.

S. Rahman, R. J. Lipert, and M. D. Porter, “Rapid Screening of Pathogenic Bacteria Using Solid

Phase Concentration and Diffuse Reflectance Spectrometer,” Anal. Chim. Acta, 2006, 569, 83-90.  

G. A. Edwards, A. J. Bergren, and M. D. Porter, “Chemically Modified Electrodes,” in Handbook of Electrochemistry, C. G. Zoski, Ed., Elsevier, 2006, Chap. 8.

S. A. Steiner, M. D. Porter, and J. S. Fritz, “Ultrafast Concentration and Speciation of Chromium III and VI,” J. of Chromatogr. A 2006, 1118, 62-7.

M. D. Porter, J. D. Driskell, K. M. Kwarta, R. J. Lipert, J. D. Neill, and J. F. Ridpath, “Detection of Viruses:  Atomic Force Microscopy and Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy,” New Diagnostic Technologies: Applications in Animal Health and Biologics Controls Dev. Biol. 2006, 126, 31-9.

H.-Y. Park. H.-W. Li, E. S. Yeung, and M. D. Porter, “Single Molecule Adsorption at Compositionally Patterned Self-Assembled Monolayers on Gold:  Role of Doman Boundaries,” Langmuir 2006, 22, 4244-9.

A. J. Bergren and M. D. Porter, “Characteristics of Selective Heterogeneous Electron Transfer for Optimization of Redox Recycling Amplification Systems,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 2006, 591, 189-200.

H.-Y. Park, J. D. Driskell, K. M. Kwarta, R. J. Lipert, M.D. Porter, C. Schoen, J. D. Neill, and J. F. Ridpath, “Ultrasensitive Immunoassays Based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering by Immunogold Labels,” in Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering – Physics and Applications, K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, and M. Moskovits, Eds., 2006, pp. 427-46.

J. D. Driskell, Robert J. Lipert, and Marc D. Porter, “Labeled Gold Nanoparticles Immobilized at Smooth Metallic Substrates:  Systematic Investigation of Surface Plasmon Resonance and Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” J. Phys. Chem. 2006, 110, 17444-51.

S. Donner, H.-W. Li, E. S. Yeung, and M. D. Porter, “Synthesis of Carbon Optically Transparent Electrodes by the Pyrolysis of Photoresist Films:  Approach to Single Molecule Spectroelectrochemistry,” Anal. Chem. 2006, 78, 2816-22.

J. D. Driskell, K. M. Kwarta, R. J. Lipert, A. Vorwald, J. D. Neill, J. F. Ridpath, and M. D. Porter, “Control of Antigen Mass Transfer via Capture Substrate Rotation:  An Absolute Method for the Determination of Viral Pathogen Concentration and Reduction of Heterogeneous Immmunoassay Incubation Times,” J. Virological Meth. 2006, 138, 160-9.

A. A. Dawoud, T. Kawaguchi, Y. Markushin, M. D. Porter, and R. Jankowiak, “Separation of Catecholamines and Dopamine-Derived DNA Adduct Using a Microfluidic Device with Electrochemical Detection,” Sensors and Actuators   2006, 120, 42-50.

J. R. Kenseth, K. M. Kwarta, J. D. Driskell, M. D. Porter, J. D. Neill, and J. F. Ridpath, “Strategies in the Use of Atomic Force Microscopy as a Multiplexed Readout Tool of Chip-Scale Protein Motifs,” in Combinatorial Materials Science, S. Mallapragada, B. Narasimhan, and M. D. Porter, Eds. 2006, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007, Chap. 4.

B. Narasimhan, S. K. Mallapragada, M. D. Porter, “Combinatorial Materials Science: Challenges and Outlook”, in Combinatorial Materials Science, S. Mallapragada, B. Narasimhan, and M. D. Porter, Eds. 2006, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007, Chap. 9.

A. J. Bergren and M. D. Porter, “Selectivity Mechanisms at Self-Assembled Monolayers on Gold:  Implications in Redox Recycling Amplification Systems,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 2007, 599, 12-22.

A. Hazen-Bosveld, R. J. Lipert, J. Nordling, C.-J. Shih, M. D. Porter, L. Siperko, D. B. Gazda, J. A. Rutz, J. E. Straub, J. R. Schultz, and J. T. McCoy, “Colorimetric-Solid Phase Extraction Technology for Water Quality Monitoring: Evaluation of C-SPE and Debubbling Methods in Microgravity,” Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Chicago, IL, SAE Technical Paper #2007-37-214, 2007.

Y. Dai, G. M. Swain, M. D. Porter, “New Horizons in Spectroelectrochemical Measurements: Optically Transparent Carbon Electrodes,” Anal. Chem. 2008, 80, 14-22.

B. J .Yakes, R. J. Lipert, J. P. Bannantine, and M. D. Porter, “Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by a Sonicate Immunoassay Based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Clin. Vaccine Immunol., 2008, 15, 227-234.

B. J. Yakes, R. J. Lipert, J. P. Bannantine, and M. D. Porter, “Impact of Protein Shedding on Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by a Whole-Cell Immunoassay Incorporating Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Clin. Vaccine Immunol., 2008, 15, 235-242.

K. Saitoh, K. Koichi, F. Yabiku, Y. Noda, M. D. Porter, M. Shibukawa, “On-column electrochemical redox derivatization for enhancement of separation selectivity of liquid chromatography: use of redox reaction as secondary chemical equilibrium,” J. Chromatogr. A 2008, 1180, 66-72.

R. Narayanan, R. J. Lipert, M. D. Porter, “Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide-Modified Spherical and Cube-like Gold Nanoparticles as Extrinsic Raman Labels in Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Based Heterogeneous Immunoassays,” Anal. Chem. 2008, 80, 2265-2271.

M. D. Porter, R. J. Lipert, L. M. Siperko, G. Wang, R. Narayanan, “SERS as a Bioassay Platform: Fundamentals, Design, and Applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev., 2008, 37, 1001-1011.

R. J. Lipert, A. A. Hill, M. D. Porter, L. M. Siperko, D. B. Gazda, J. A. Rutz, J. T. Alverson, J. E. Straub, J. R. Schultz, and J. T. McCoy “Microgravity Evaluation of Colorimetric-Solid Phase Extraction for the Measurement of Total I in Spacecraft Drinking Water,” Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Rome, Italy, SAE Technical Paper #2008-01-2199, 2008.

L. M. Siperko, M. D. Porter, and R. J. Lipert, “Solid Phase Extraction Mechanistic Studies of the Ag(I)-DMABR Complex: Improving Efficiency of the C-SPE Standard Method of Analysis,” Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Rome, Italy, SAE Technical Paper #2008-01-2200, 2008.

M. D. Porter, L. M. Siperko, J. Nordling, A. A. Hill, C.-J. Shih, R. J. Lipert, and J. S. Fritz, “Colorimetric-Solid Phase Extraction Technology for Water Quality Monitoring: Evaluation of C-SPE and Debubbling Methods in Microgravity,” Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Rome, Italy, SAE Technical Paper #2008-01-2201, 2008.

G. A. Edwards, A. J. Bergren, E. J. Cox, M. D. Porter, “Importance of Reactant Mass Transfer in the Reproducible Preparation of Self-Assembled Monolayers,” J. Electroanal. Chem., in press.

C. T. Gross, M. D. Porter, and R. S. Houk, “Electrochemically-Modulated Liquid Chromatography for Blank Clean-up in Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom., submitted.

N. Pekas, M. D. Porter, and M. Tondra, “Detection and Manipulation of Magnetic Objects in Microfluidic Devices,” J. Systemics, Cybernetics & Informatics, submitted.

J. W. Wilson, C. M. Ott, L. Quick, R. Davis, K. Honer zu Bentrup, A. Crabbe, E. Richter, S. Sarker, S. Porwollik, P. Cheng, M. McClelland, G. Tsaprailis, T. Radabaugh, A. Hunt, M. Shah, M. Nelman-Gonzalez, S. Hing, M. Parra, P. Dumars, K. Norwood, R. Bober, J. Devich, A. Ruggles, A. CdeBaca, S. Narayan, J. Benjamin, C. Goulart, M. Rupert, L. Catella, M. J. Schurr, K. Buchanan, J. Barrila, L. Morici, J. McCracken, M. D. Porter, D. L. Pierson, S. Smith, M. Mergeay, N. Leys, H. M. Stefanyshyn-Piper, D. Gorie, and C. A. Nickerson, “Media Ion Composition Controls Regulatory and Virulence Response of Salmonella in Spaceflight,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, submitted.

S. A. Steiner, M. D. Porter, and J. S. Fritz, “Colorimetric-solid phase extraction of iodine from water,” J. Chromatogr. A , in preparation.

A. J. Bergren, G. A. Edwards, and M. D. Porter, "A Surprising Odd-Even Oscillation in the Dependence of the rate for Solution-Based Heterogeneous Electron Transfer at Alkanethiolate Monolayers on Gold," in revision.

Nordling, J.; Millen, R.; Bullen, H.; Tondra, M.; Granger, M.C.; Porter, M.D. “Giant Magnetoresistance Sensors:  1. Internally Calibrated Readout of Scanned Magnetic Arrays” Anal. Chem. In revision.

Millen, R.; Nordling, J.; Bullen, H.; Tondra, M.; Granger, M.C.; Porter, M.D. “Giant Magenetoresistive Sensors: 2. Detection of Biorecognition Events at Self-Referencing and Magnetically Tagged Arrays” Anal. Chem. In revision.

Lab Contact Information

36 S. Wasatch Drive
Salt Lake City, UT 84112
Phone: 801-587-1505
E-mail
 
Last Updated: 3/14/13